Fascism is an ideology which has its roots in Europe. The foundations
of fascism were laid by a number of European thinkers in the 19th
century, and it was put into practice in the 20th century by such
European counties as Italy and Germany. Other countries which were
influenced by fascism and adopted it 'imported' the ideology from
Europe. So in order to examine the roots of fascism, we must turn
to the history of Europe.
European history has naturally gone through many stages and periods.
But looking at it in the broadest sense, we can divide into three
fundamental periods from the cultural point of view:
- The pre-Christian (pagan) period.
- The period when Christianity assumed cultural dominance in
- The post-Christian (materialist) period
The idea of what we have described as 'The post-Christian period'
may strike many readers as odd. Because Christianity is still by
far the majority religion in European society. But many ideologies
and philosophies opposing Christianity, materialist philosophy being
the most important, had become increasingly influential by the 19th
Looking at these three periods, we see that fascist culture belongs
to the first and third. In other words, fascism was born out
of pagan culture, and was later resurrected as a part of materialist
culture. There was no fascist ideology or practice throughout
the thousand or so years when Christian culture dominated Europe.
This is because Christianity is a religion of peace and equality.
Christianity, which believes in and tries to bring people to live
by love, compassion, sacrifice, affection and humility, is the complete
antithesis of fascism.
Fascists in the Pagan World
The most fundamental feature of pre-Christian Europe was that
it possessed pagan beliefs, in other words polytheistic religions.
Europeans believed that the false gods they worshipped revealed
many aspects of life to them and helped to them. Among the most
important of these were the gods of war, who appeared in just about
every pagan society.
This prestige that gods of war enjoyed in pagan belief was the
result of these societies' regarding violence as sacred. Pagan peoples
were all barbarian and lived in a permanent atmosphere of war. To
kill and spill blood in the name of the people was seen as a sacred
duty. Savagery and violence of almost all kinds could find a justification
in the pagan world. There was no ethical source to forbid violence
or say that it was wrong. Even Rome, thought of as the most 'civilized'
state in the pagan world, was a place where people were made to
fight to the death or were torn to pieces by wild animals. The Emperor
Nero came to power by having countless numbers of people killed,
including his own mother, wife, and stepbrother. He had Christians
torn apart by wild animals in the arena, and tortured thousands
of people just because of their beliefs.
While this culture of violence ruled in Rome, the barbarian pagan
peoples of the north, such as the Vandals, Goths, and Visigoths
were even more savage. These peoples tried to wreak devastation
on each other, and also to plunder Rome. The pagan world was one
where only violence ruled, where the use of violence of all kinds
was counted as quite ethical, and even where there was no serious
concept of ethics at all.
The most concrete example in the pagan world of a 'fascist' system
in the modern sense was the Greek city-state of Sparta.
Sparta: A Model for All Fascists
Sparta was a military state, dedicated to war and violence, and
alleged to have been founded by Lycurgos in the 8th century BC.
An absolute education system was set up. Under this the state was
very much more important than the individual. Peoples' lives were
evaluated by whether they would be of use to the state or not. The
lives of strong, healthy male children were dedicated to the state,
unhealthy babies were left on mountains to die. (This Spartan
practice was taken as an example by Nazi Germany, and it was claimed,
under the influence of Darwinism, that the sickly had to be eliminated
for a 'healthy and superior race.') Parents in Sparta were responsible
for taking care of their sons until the age of seven. From then
until the age of 12, children were placed in teams of 15, and those
who succeeded in conforming to the rules were selected as leaders.
Children strengthened their bodies and prepared for war by spending
their time doing sports.
city state Sparta was a ferocious war machine. Citizens
were raised as brutal warriors since from childhood.
This fascist culture of the Spartans would inspire the
neo-pagan ideologues of the 19th and 20th centuries.
Literacy was unimportant, and there was little interest in music
or literature. The only songs the children were allowed to sing
and learn were about war and violence. (The fascist education given
to children from the age of four by Mussolini and Hitler was very
much the same). It was a Spartan custom to raise people with a warrior
spirit by disregarding art, literature, and education.
The most important of the thinkers who made detailed statements
about Sparta was the famous Greek philosopher Plato. Although he
lived in Athens, which was governed democratically, he was in awe
of the fascist system in Sparta, and portrayed Sparta as a model
state in his books. Because of Plato's fascist tendencies, Karl
Popper, one of the foremost thinkers of the 20th century, describes
him as the first source of inspiration for oppressive regimes and
an enemy of open society in his famous book The Open Society and
Its Enemies. Popper explains how Plato calmly defended the killing
of babies in Sparta, and describes him as the first theoretical
proponent of 'eugenics:'
To this end, it is important that the master
class should feel as one superior master race. 'The race of
the guardians must be kept pure', says Plato (in defence of infanticide),
when developing the racialist argument that we breed animals with
great care while neglecting our own race, an argument which has
been repeated ever since. (Infanticide was not an Athenian institution;
Plato, seeing that is was practised at Sparta for eugenic reasons,
concluded that it must be ancient and therefore good.) 
These views of Plato, who regarded human beings as a species of
animal, and proposed that they would evolve by forced mating, came
to the fore once again with Darwinism in the 19th century and were
implemented by the Nazis in the 20th.
While defending the Spartan model, Plato also defended another
aspect of fascism, the state use of pressure to administer society.
In Plato's view, this pressure should be so comprehensive in daily
life that people should be unable to think of anything apart from
the orders of the state and behave in a totally brainwashed manner,
leaving their own intelligence and free will aside. The following
words by Plato, which Popper quoted in his book as a complete statement
of the fascist mentality, describe the dimensions of pagan fascism:
The greatest principle of all is that nobody,
whether male or female, should be without a leader. Nor should
the mind of anybody be habituated to letting him do anything at
all of his own initiative; neither out of zeal, nor even playfully.
But in war and in the midst of peace - to his leader he shall direct
his eye and follow him faithfully. And even in the smallest matter
he should stand under leadership. For example, he should get up,
or move, or wash, or take his meals . . only if he has been told
to do so, by long habit, never to dream of acting independently,
and to become utterly incapable of it. 
With these ideas and practices the Spartans and Plato exhibited
the fundamental characteristics of fascism. This view, that human
beings are a kind of animal, means administration by fanatical racism,
the growth of war and conflict, state pressure on society, and brainwashing.
The Pharaoh: The Antisemite Against Moses
An "enemy of the open society", according to Popper.
Similar fascist practices were also seen in other pagan societies.
The system set up by the pharaohs, the rulers of ancient Egypt,
is in certain aspects reminiscent of Spartan fascism. The Egyptian
pharaohs built up state systems based on strong military discipline,
and used them to oppress their own people. In the time of the Prophet
Moses, Rameses II, the tyrannical Egyptian ruler, ordered that
all male Jewish children should be killed, a cruelty reminiscent
of the baby-killing in Sparta.
And the psychological pressure this ruler put on his own subjects
also suggests the fascist system of oppression described by Plato.
As God has revealed in the Qur'an , Pharoah gave his subjects the
following totalitarian inspiration: 'I only show you what I see
myself and I only guide you to the path of rectitude.' (The
Qur'an , 40:29) And he threatened those magicians who rejected his
pagan beliefs and led to the true religion by following Moses: 'Have
you believed in him before I authorised you to do so?... I will
cut off your alternate hands and feet and then I will crucify every
one of you.' (The Qur'an , 7:123-124)
Fascism's Withdrawal in the Face of the Values
The fascist-pagan culture which dominated Europe disappeared by
stages with the spread of Christianity in the 2nd and 3rd centuries
AD, first to Rome and then to all of Europe. Christianity carried
the basic ethical characteristics of the true religion revealed
to man by the Prophet Jesus to European society. Europe, which formerly
believed violence, conflict and bloodshed to be sacred and justified,
and which was composed of different tribes, races and city-states
which constantly fought each other, underwent an important change.
- Racial and tribal wars disappeared: In the pagan world,
all tribes and races saw each other as enemies, and there was
constant fighting between them. Each pagan society had its own
gods and totems which it invented, and waged war in their name.
With the coming of Christianity, there was a single belief, culture,
and even language in Europe in general, and the conflict of the
pagan world came to an end.
- Peace and compassion came to be considered sacred, instead
of violence: In pagan societies, inflicting bloodshed, suffering
and torture was seen as heroic actions that appeased the imaginary
'gods of war.' Under Christianity however, European societies
learned that people had to love and have compassion for each other
(even for their enemies), and that bloodshed was a great sin in
the sight of God.
- The view of human beings as a species of animal disappeared:
Plato regarding the Spartan warriors as equivalent to 'guard
dogs' was an extension of the 'animist' belief widespread
in pagan societies. Animism meant ascribing a soul to nature and
animals. So according to animism there was no difference between
a human being and an animal, or even a plant. But when religion
came to predominate this superstition disappeared, and European
societies realised that human beings possessed a soul given to
them by God, were completely different to animals, and could not
therefore be subject to the same laws.
These three pagan features, racism, bloodshed, and seeing human
beings as a species of animal, are also the basic characteristics
of fascism. In Europe, they were vanquished by Christianity. In
the Middle East, the same victory was achieved by Islam over Arab
paganism. Before the advent of Islam, the Arabs (and other Middle
Eastern and Central Asian societies) possessed a warlike, bloodthirsty,
and racist culture. Even the Spartans' barbaric abandoning of unwanted
children to die was implemented by pagan Arabs in the form of burying
female children alive. The Qur'an mentions this savage practice:
When the baby girl buried alive is asked for
what crime she was killed. (The Qur'an , 81:8-9)
When any of them is given the good news of
(the birth of a daughter) the very thing which he himself has ascribed
to the All-Merciful his face darkens and he is furious. (The Qur'an ,
The Arabs, and other Middle Eastern and Central Asian societies,
only came into possession of a peaceful, civilised, intelligent
culture, hostile to bloodshed, after they were enlightened by Islam.
Thus they were freed from the old tribal wars and nomadic savagery,
and found peace and stability with monotheism.
Modern Fascism: The Return of Paganism
Although European pagan culture was suppressed by Christianity,
it did not die. In the 16th and 17th centuries, a number of European
thinkers, influenced by the works of ancient Greek philosophers
such as Plato or Aristotle, began to carry concepts from the pagan
world back to Europe.
The rebirth of paganism was identified quite clearly in the French
Revolution, which is widely accepted as the political result of
Enlightenment philosophy. The Jacobins, who led the bloody 'terrorist'
period of the French Revolution, were influenced by paganism, and
nurtured a great hatred of Christianity. As a result of intense
Jacobin propaganda during the hottest days of the revolution, a
widespread 'rejection of Christianity' movement developed. And alongside
this, a new 'religion of reason' was established, based on pagan
symbols rather than Christianity. The first signs were seen in the
'revolutionary worship' on the Federation Holiday on July 14, 1790,
and then spread widely. Robespierre, the bloody leader of the Jacobins,
brought new rules to 'revolutionary worship,' set the principles
of these out in a report under the name ' Worship of the Supreme
Being.' One striking result of this development was the turning
of the famous Notre Dame Cathedral into a 'temple of reason.' The
Christian figures on the walls were torn down, and a female statue
known as 'the goddess of reason' erected in the centre of it, in
other words a pagan idol was put up.
This illustration symbolized
the principles of the new rule that was formed after the French
Revolution. The rep cap is a derivation from the Mithra myth,
one of the signs of the neo-pagan aspirations of the Jakobin
This pagan tendency was expressed by the revolutionaries with a
number of different symbols. The red caps worn by the revolutionary
guards during the French Revolution, and which were used in many
illustrations as a symbol of that revolution, were a symbol descended
from the pagan world and the myth of Mithra. 
The neo-Pagan tendency which began with the French Revolution
was given shape by Friedrich Nietzsche and carried forward to Nazi
ideology. Evolutionists such as Charles Darwin, Francis Galton and
Ernst Haeckel tried to give so-called scientific support to this
new rising paganism, by denying the existence of God, showing that
all of life consists of a 'struggle for survival', and justifying
The American historian Gene Edward Veith sums this reality up
this way in his book Modern Fascism: Liquidating the Judaeo-Christian
Worldview: "Fascism is the modern world's nostalgia for
paganism. It is a sophisticated culture's revolt against God."
The Pagan Ideology of the Nazis
The Nazis defended paganism, both during the early stages, and
also when they came to power in 1933. They tore German society away
from Christianity, and tried to turn it to pagan beliefs.
A short while after Hitler came to power, Christian holidays and
festivals were replaced by pagan ones. 'Mother Earth' or 'Father
Sky' were called on at wedding ceremonies. In 1935, Christian prayers
in schools were stopped, and then all lessons concerning Christianity
Schoolchildren were taught the so-called 'Glorious pre-Christian
German history,' and various rites and ceremonies, legacies of pagan
culture, were held all over Germany. All Nazi meetings were in the
form of traditional pagan ceremonies. There was almost no difference
between Nazi rallies, held under the shadow of flaming torches,
where slogans full of hate and violence were shouted and Wagner's
pagan music played, and the perverted ceremonies carried out thousands
of years ago at pagan temples and altars.
The Nazis also used the arts to re-awaken paganism. Ancient Greek
concepts and symbols began to predominate under Nazi rule, and many
statues similar to Greek statues were made, showing strong men and
women of the Aryan race. Hitler dreamed that a 'superior race' would
be formed by the use of eugenics, and establish a cruel and oppressive
'world kingdom' based on the Spartan model. The expression 'The
Third Reich' is a statement of this dream. And as a result of this
dream, 55 million people lost their lives in the Second World War,
the bloodiest conflict that had ever been seen.
The Nazis' Anti-Semitism: Another Expression of
Hatred of Religion
The reason for the psychopathic hatred the Nazis feel for the
Jews (and for the massacres they carried out because of it) was
their pagan ideology, which had a hatred of religion.
A Nazi ceremony inspired
from ancient pagan rituals.
According to Nazi logic, the Germans had first been a warrior,
pagan society, then they had abandoned that culture with the spread
of Christianity, and Christianity was a continuation of Judaism.
Therefore, the Nazis' hatred of Christianity stemmed from the fact
they saw it as a 'Jewish conspiracy.' That the Prophet Jesus,
himself of Jewish origins, should be loved and respected by the
Germans, whom they considered the 'master race,' was an idea the
Nazis found unacceptable. In the Nazis' opinion, it was not prophets
of Jewish origin who should light the way for the German people,
but the cruel and barbaric warriors of pagan German culture.
Nazi ideology saw world history as a conflict between the 'Aryan
race' and the 'Semites.' According to the Nazis, the Aryan race
was the leader of Indo-European culture, and the Semites (the Jews
and Arabs) the leaders of Middle Eastern culture. The fundamental
feature of Indo-European culture was its pagan beliefs. It was for
this reason that the Nazis saw themselves as the inheritors of a
pagan culture. They looked on the Jews as a hostile race who had
abandoned paganism and spread monotheistic belief over the world.
The Pink Swastika, which discusses the Nazis' pagan ideologies,
summarizes the subject in this way:
The reason why the Nazis first attacked the Jewish
people and swore to exterminate them physically and spiritually
is because the teachings of the Bible, both the Torah and the New
Testament, represent the foundations on which the whole system of
Christian ethics rests. 
This deviant Nazi belief can be seen in many other fascist movements.
Many neo-fascist groups today hold pagan beliefs which they consider
the 'religion of the Aryan race,' and have a particular hatred of
the revealed religions of Christianity, Judaism, and Islam, which
they describe as the 'semitic myth.' And because of this distorted
logic, fascist groups have grown up in the Islamic world which have
tried to develop a new anti-semitism in the shape of "hatred
Whereas divine religions are not addressed solely to the Semitic
races, but to everyone in the world, and the salvation of everyone
lies in following the common call of these religions and believing
in and submitting to God. Fascism, which denies the religion that
God has revealed to mankind and reveres the deviant pagan religion
of its ancestors, actually consists of a great imprudence. God mentions
these imprudent people who turn to the 'religion of their ancestors'
in the Qur'an :
When they are told, 'Follow what God has sent
down to you,' They say, 'We are following what we found our fathers
doing.' What, even though their fathers did not understand a thing
and were not guided! (The Qur'an , 2:170)
1-Karl R. Popper, The Open Society
and Its Enemies, Vol I The Spell of Plato, London, Routledge &
Kegan Paul, 1969, p. 51
2-Karl R. Popper, The Open Society
and Its Enemies, Vol I The Spell of Plato, London, Routledge &
Kegan Paul, 1969, p. 7
3-Michael Howard, The Occult Conspiracy,
1.b., London: Rider, 1989, p. 23
4-Gene Edward Veith, Modern Fascism
: Liquidating the Judeo-Christian Worldview, Concordia Publishing
House; 1993, p. 160
5-Scott Lively-Kevin E. Abrams, Pink
Swastika, 1998, preface, viii
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